Plants are autotrophic organisms, i.e., they synthesize their own food using energy from the sun, water and soil nutrients. Through the process of photosynthesis, they convert solar energy into chemical energy which is stored in sugars (carbohydrates).
Plant cells are characterized by their cellulose wall and chloroplasts, cellular organelles that contain chlorophyll, the green pigment that carries out photosynthesis. Production of chemical energy by plants supports the vast majority of organisms on the planet. Plants which have developed systems of conduction are known as vascular plants
Plants have been traditionally divided into several groups: algae, mosses (bryophytes), ferns (pteridophytes) and seed-bearing plants: cycads, ginkos and pines (these three groups are considered gymnosperms). The flowering plants (angiosperms) comprise two major groups: grasses and palms (monocotyledons) and magnolias and margaritas (dicotyledons).
The diversity of plants in Mexico is one of the greatest in the world: it is calculated that there are around 18,000 to 30,000 plant species in our country. Of the total species, it is estimated that 10,000 to 13,000 are endemic, and these are mainly concentrated in arid and semi arid areas.