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Bacteria
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Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotic organisms, meaning that they consist of a single cell with no nucleus. Their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is free within the cytoplasm and they have no organelles, such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and Golgi apparatus. Despite their simple cellular organization, they have a cell wall (layer of polysaccharides) that surrounds the cell, providing rigidity and protection. They are so small that it is impossible to see them with the naked eye unless they are grouped into recognizable colonies.
Image: Escherichia coli,
increased 25.000 times. Wikipedia

In addition to a cell wall, when environmental conditions become hostile many bacteria form protective structures within called endospores, which contain genetic material and the substances necessary for survival. Some are so strong that they allow the bacteria to survive high temperatures, even for long periods of time.

They reproduce asexually by a form of cell division called binary fission, which produces genetically identical copies of the original cell. In ideal conditions, some bacteria double in a matter of minutes so they could in principle give rise to a population of millions of bacteria in a short time.
     
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